- (Heva)Hiwa (Hope) was an Iraqi Kurdish nationalist party composed largely of urban intellectuals embracing the political spectrum from left to right and established in 1941. Thus, Hiwa indicated the social shift gradually beginning in the Kurdish nationalist movement away from the stereotyped exclusive mountain and tribal identity. Rafiq Hilmi was the party's leader. Hiwa was weakened, however, by the absence of peasant membership and was unable to exploit the Barzani rebellion in the early and mid-1940s. Although Hiwa presented a memorandum to the U.S. ambassador in Iraq, Loy Henderson, reminding him of U.S. president Woodrow Wilson's 12th point concerning Kurdish self-determination and requesting U.S. support for Kurdish autonomy in March 1945, the party ceased to exist by the end of the year. Elements of Hiwa participated in the establishment of the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) in 1946.
Historical Dictionary of the Kurds. Michael M. Gunter.
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hīwa- Ⅰ — *hīwa , *hīwaz germ., Adjektiv: nhd. traut, vertraut; ne. familiar; Rekontruktionsbasis: an., ae., afries., as., ahd.; Quelle: Personenname (1. Hälfte 1. Jh.); Etymologie: s … Germanisches Wörterbuch
hīwa- Ⅱ — *hīwa , *hīwaz, *heiwa , *heiwaz germ., stark. Maskulinum (a): nhd. Angehöriger, Hausgenosse, Familie, Hausgemeinschaft; ne. relative (Maskulinum), fellow lodger, family; Rekontruktionsbasis: got., an., ae., afries., ahd.; Hinweis … Germanisches Wörterbuch
hīwa- — Ⅰ s. hīwa Ⅰ germ., Adjektiv; nhd. traut, vertraut; Ⅱ s. hīwa Ⅱ germ., stark. Maskulinum (a); nhd. Angehöriger, Hausgenosse, Familie, Hausgemeinschaft; s … Germanisches Wörterbuch
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